All joists must extend at least 1-1/2" on to a bearing assembly, of either a beam or full height wall, unless metal hangers are installed to provide proper bearing support against other structural components. Beams, which support the floor joists over greater spans, are constructed in the form of laminated joists often referred to as built up beams, or one piece solid load bearing beams, cut from logs or manufactured. Electricians and plumber may often cut or drill into the joist work to install utilities, and this is accepted, so long as they do not remove more material than what is required by codes. This type of floor system is usually the cheapest to install.
With reclaimed material waste factor is a huge variable. How much effort does the manufacturer take to give you a 100% usable product? Poorly milled with very little defecting and culling done on a solid wood floor that costs $6/sf and has a 15% waste factor actually costs more than a similar product that is milled better costing $7/sf with a 2% waste factor. That extra wastes costs more in shipping and labor to defect. This is one of the hardest things to demonstrate to a customer that the face value costs doesn`t necessarily represent the actual raw material cost unless one is truly comparing identical quality and specified products.
There are three main types of sub-flooring installed to cover and span the floor structure. It is over this that the finished floor will be placed. The sub-flooring types include raw sheathing, interlocking and strip. It is utilized not only to provide a surface for the interior finishes to be placed on, but also to prevent twisting or torque forces placed on the building. The sub-floor also allows load sharing within the joist framing system. Often the sub-flooring is glued to the joist work to eliminate creaking floors and to prevent the floor joists from turning.
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